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    Downing, Kenneth

    TitleBiophysicist Senior Sci/Engr
    SchoolLawrence Berkeley National Lab
    DepartmentMolecular Biophys & Integ Bio
    Address1 Cyclotron Road
    Berkeley CA 94720
    Phone510/486-5941
    vCardDownload vCard

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Downing K, Glaeser RM. Estimating the effect of finite depth of field in single-particle cryo-EM. Ultramicroscopy. 2017 Aug 19; 184(Pt A):94-99. PMID: 28869854.
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      2. Chiu W, Downing K. Editorial overview: Cryo Electron Microscopy: Exciting advances in CryoEM Herald a new era in structural biology. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2017 Aug 08. PMID: 28801059.
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      3. Killilea AN, Csencsits R, Le EBNT, Patel AM, Kenny SJ, Xu K, Downing K. Cytoskeletal organization in microtentacles. Exp Cell Res. 2017 Aug 15; 357(2):291-298. PMID: 28551375.
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      4. Kellogg EH, Hejab NMA, Howes S, Northcote P, Miller JH, Díaz JF, Downing K, Nogales E. Insights into the Distinct Mechanisms of Action of Taxane and Non-Taxane Microtubule Stabilizers from Cryo-EM Structures. J Mol Biol. 2017 Mar 10; 429(5):633-646. PMID: 28104363.
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      5. Finbloom JA, Han K, Aanei IL, Hartman EC, Finley DT, Dedeo MT, Fishman M, Downing K, Francis MB. Stable Disk Assemblies of a Tobacco Mosaic Virus Mutant as Nanoscale Scaffolds for Applications in Drug Delivery. Bioconjug Chem. 2016 Oct 07. PMID: 27712069.
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      6. Han BG, Watson Z, Kang H, Pulk A, Downing K, Cate J, Glaeser RM. Long shelf-life streptavidin support-films suitable for electron microscopy of biological macromolecules. J Struct Biol. 2016 Aug; 195(2):238-244. PMID: 27320699; PMCID: PMC4943657 [Available on 08/01/17].
      7. Sun J, Jiang X, Siegmund A, Connolly MD, Downing K, Balsara NP, Zuckermann RN. Morphology and Proton Transport in Humidified Phosphonated Peptoid Block Copolymers. Macromolecules. 2016 Apr 26; 49(8):3083-3090. PMID: 27134312.
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      8. Sun J, Jiang X, Lund R, Downing K, Balsara NP, Zuckermann RN. Self-assembly of crystalline nanotubes from monodisperse amphiphilic diblock copolypeptoid tiles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Apr 12; 113(15):3954-9. PMID: 27035944; PMCID: PMC4839393 [Available on 10/12/16].
      9. Marabini R, Carragher B, Chen S, Chen J, Cheng A, Downing K, Frank J, Grassucci RA, Bernard Heymann J, Jiang W, Jonic S, Liao HY, Ludtke SJ, Patwari S, Piotrowski AL, Quintana A, Sorzano CO, Stahlberg H, Vargas J, Voss NR, Chiu W, Carazo JM. CTF Challenge: Result summary. J Struct Biol. 2015 Jun; 190(3):348-59. PMID: 25913484; PMCID: PMC4672951.
      10. Aquila A, Barty A, Bostedt C, Boutet S, Carini G, dePonte D, Drell P, Doniach S, Downing K, Earnest T, Elmlund H, Elser V, Gühr M, Hajdu J, Hastings J, Hau-Riege SP, Huang Z, Lattman EE, Maia FR, Marchesini S, Ourmazd A, Pellegrini C, Santra R, Schlichting I, Schroer C, Spence JC, Vartanyants IA, Wakatsuki S, Weis WI, Williams GJ. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map. Struct Dyn. 2015 Jul; 2(4):041701. PMID: 26798801; PMCID: PMC4711616.
      11. Luef B, Frischkorn KR, Wrighton KC, Holman HY, Birarda G, Thomas BC, Singh A, Williams KH, Siegerist CE, Tringe SG, Downing K, Comolli LR, Banfield JF. Diverse uncultivated ultra-small bacterial cells in groundwater. Nat Commun. 2015 Feb 27; 6:6372. PMID: 25721682.
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      12. Sarkar P, Bosneaga E, Yap EG, Das J, Tsai WT, Cabal A, Neuhaus E, Maji D, Kumar S, Joo M, Yakovlev S, Csencsits R, Yu Z, Bajaj C, Downing K, Auer M. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106928. PMID: 25207917; PMCID: PMC4160213.
      13. Beers KM, Yakovlev S, Jackson A, Wang X, Hexemer A, Downing K, Balsara NP. Absence of Schroeder's paradox in a nanostructured block copolymer electrolyte membrane. J Phys Chem B. 2014 Jun 19; 118(24):6785-91. PMID: 24842682; PMCID: PMC4207082.
      14. Chen XC, Wong DT, Yakovlev S, Beers KM, Downing K, Balsara NP. Effect of morphology of nanoscale hydrated channels on proton conductivity in block copolymer electrolyte membranes. Nano Lett. 2014 Jul 09; 14(7):4058-64. PMID: 24854241; PMCID: PMC4207093.
      15. Yakovlev S, Balsara NP, Downing K. Insights on the study of nafion nanoscale morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Membranes (Basel). 2013 Dec 16; 3(4):424-39. PMID: 24957067; PMCID: PMC4021952.
      16. Glaeser RM, Sassolini S, Cambie R, Jin J, Cabrini S, Schmid AK, Danev R, Buijsse B, Csencsits R, Downing K, Larson DM, Typke D, Han BG. Minimizing electrostatic charging of an aperture used to produce in-focus phase contrast in the TEM. Ultramicroscopy. 2013 Dec; 135:6-15. PMID: 23872037; PMCID: PMC3818313.
      17. Ounjai P, Kim KD, Liu H, Dong M, Tauscher AN, Witkowska HE, Downing K. Architectural insights into a ciliary partition. Curr Biol. 2013 Feb 18; 23(4):339-44. PMID: 23375896; PMCID: PMC3580003.
      18. Yakovlev S, Downing K. Visualization of clusters in polymer electrolyte membranes by electron microscopy. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Jan 28; 15(4):1052-64. PMID: 23165242; PMCID: PMC4185922.
      19. Downing K. Future developments in instrumentation for electron crystallography. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 955:353-79. PMID: 23132071.
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      20. Luef B, Fakra SC, Csencsits R, Wrighton KC, Williams KH, Wilkins MJ, Downing K, Long PE, Comolli LR, Banfield JF. Iron-reducing bacteria accumulate ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates that may support planktonic growth. ISME J. 2013 Feb; 7(2):338-50. PMID: 23038172; PMCID: PMC3554402.
      21. Ounjai P, Kim KD, Lishko PV, Downing K. Three-dimensional structure of the bovine sperm connecting piece revealed by electron cryotomography. Biol Reprod. 2012 Sep; 87(3):73. PMID: 22767409; PMCID: PMC3464910.
      22. Watkins BY, Joshi SA, Ball DA, Leggett H, Park S, Kim J, Austin CD, Paler-Martinez A, Xu M, Downing K, Brown EJ. Mycobacterium marinum SecA2 promotes stable granulomas and induces tumor necrosis factor alpha in vivo. Infect Immun. 2012 Oct; 80(10):3512-20. PMID: 22851747; PMCID: PMC3457566.
      23. Murat D, Falahati V, Bertinetti L, Csencsits R, Körnig A, Downing K, Faivre D, Komeili A. The magnetosome membrane protein, MmsF, is a major regulator of magnetite biomineralization in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Mol Microbiol. 2012 Aug; 85(4):684-99. PMID: 22716969; PMCID: PMC3570065.
      24. Dong H, Shu JY, Dube N, Ma Y, Tirrell MV, Downing K, Xu T. 3-Helix micelles stabilized by polymer springs. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Jul 18; 134(28):11807-14. PMID: 22731391; PMCID: PMC4186246.
      25. Henderson R, Sali A, Baker ML, Carragher B, Devkota B, Downing K, Egelman EH, Feng Z, Frank J, Grigorieff N, Jiang W, Ludtke SJ, Medalia O, Penczek PA, Rosenthal PB, Rossmann MG, Schmid MF, Schröder GF, Steven AC, Stokes DL, Westbrook JD, Wriggers W, Yang H, Young J, Berman HM, Chiu W, Kleywegt GJ, Lawson CL. Outcome of the first electron microscopy validation task force meeting. Structure. 2012 Feb 08; 20(2):205-14. PMID: 22325770; PMCID: PMC3328769.
      26. Comolli LR, Duarte R, Baum D, Luef B, Downing K, Larson DM, Csencsits R, Banfield JF. A portable cryo-plunger for on-site intact cryogenic microscopy sample preparation in natural environments. Microsc Res Tech. 2012 Jun; 75(6):829-36. PMID: 22213355; PMCID: PMC4677670.
      27. Yakovlev S, Wang X, Ercius P, Balsara NP, Downing K. Direct imaging of nanoscale acidic clusters in a polymer electrolyte membrane. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Dec 28; 133(51):20700-3. PMID: 22107080; PMCID: PMC4224285.
      28. Yakovlev S, Downing K. Freezing in sealed capillaries for preparation of frozen hydratedsections. J Microsc. 2011 Dec; 244(3):235-47. PMID: 22077543; PMCID: PMC4199587.
      29. Yakovlev S, Downing K. Crystalline ice as a cryoprotectant: theoretical calculation of cooling speed in capillary tubes. J Microsc. 2011 Jul; 243(1):8-14. PMID: 21534954; PMCID: PMC4189803.
      30. Larson DM, Downing K, Glaeser RM. The surface of evaporated carbon films is an insulating, high-bandgap material. J Struct Biol. 2011 May; 174(2):420-3. PMID: 21338687; PMCID: PMC3086603.
      31. Downing K. Commentary on "Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography" by Y. Miyazaki et al. J Mol Biol. 2010 Dec 17; 404(5):749-50. PMID: 20965201.
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      32. Amat F, Comolli LR, Nomellini JF, Moussavi F, Downing K, Smit J, Horowitz M. Analysis of the intact surface layer of Caulobacter crescentus by cryo-electron tomography. J Bacteriol. 2010 Nov; 192(22):5855-65. PMID: 20833802; PMCID: PMC2976456.
      33. Sui H, Downing K. Structural basis of interprotofilament interaction and lateral deformation of microtubules. Structure. 2010 Aug 11; 18(8):1022-31. PMID: 20696402; PMCID: PMC2976607.
      34. Yeh YC, Comolli LR, Downing K, Shapiro L, McAdams HH. The caulobacter Tol-Pal complex is essential for outer membrane integrity and the positioning of a polar localization factor. J Bacteriol. 2010 Oct; 192(19):4847-58. PMID: 20693330; PMCID: PMC2944545.
      35. Byrne ME, Ball DA, Guerquin-Kern JL, Rouiller I, Wu TD, Downing K, Vali H, Komeili A. Desulfovibrio magneticus RS-1 contains an iron- and phosphorus-rich organelle distinct from its bullet-shaped magnetosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jul 06; 107(27):12263-8. PMID: 20566879; PMCID: PMC2901430.
      36. Amat F, Comolli LR, Moussavi F, Smit J, Downing K, Horowitz M. Subtomogram alignment by adaptive Fourier coefficient thresholding. J Struct Biol. 2010 Sep; 171(3):332-44. PMID: 20621702; PMCID: PMC4189811.
      37. Goley ED, Comolli LR, Fero KE, Downing K, Shapiro L. DipM links peptidoglycan remodelling to outer membrane organization in Caulobacter. Mol Microbiol. 2010 Jul 01; 77(1):56-73. PMID: 20497504; PMCID: PMC2915588.
      38. Wang H, Downing K. Specimen preparation for electron diffraction of thin crystals. Micron. 2011 Feb; 42(2):132-40. PMID: 20561794; PMCID: PMC3064510.
      39. Sindelar CV, Downing K. An atomic-level mechanism for activation of the kinesin molecular motors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 02; 107(9):4111-6. PMID: 20160108; PMCID: PMC2840164.
      40. Bowman GR, Comolli LR, Gaietta GM, Fero M, Hong SH, Jones Y, Lee JH, Downing K, Ellisman MH, McAdams HH, Shapiro L. Caulobacter PopZ forms a polar subdomain dictating sequential changes in pole composition and function. Mol Microbiol. 2010 Apr; 76(1):173-89. PMID: 20149103; PMCID: PMC2935252.
      41. Downing K, Nogales E. Cryoelectron microscopy applications in the study of tubulin structure, microtubule architecture, dynamics and assemblies, and interaction of microtubules with motors. Methods Enzymol. 2010; 483:121-42. PMID: 20888472; PMCID: PMC4165512.
      42. Han BG, Dong M, Liu H, Camp L, Geller J, Singer M, Hazen TC, Choi M, Witkowska HE, Ball DA, Typke D, Downing K, Shatsky M, Brenner SE, Chandonia JM, Biggin MD, Glaeser RM. Survey of large protein complexes in D. vulgaris reveals great structural diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 29; 106(39):16580-5. PMID: 19805340; PMCID: PMC2742403.
      43. Holman HY, Wozei E, Lin Z, Comolli LR, Ball DA, Borglin S, Fields MW, Hazen TC, Downing K. Real-time molecular monitoring of chemical environment in obligate anaerobes during oxygen adaptive response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 04; 106(31):12599-604. PMID: 19541631.
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      44. Gomez ED, Panday A, Feng EH, Chen V, Stone GM, Minor AM, Kisielowski C, Downing K, Borodin O, Smith GD, Balsara NP. Effect of ion distribution on conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes. Nano Lett. 2009 Mar; 9(3):1212-6. PMID: 19193125.
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      45. Nettles JH, Downing K. The tubulin binding mode of microtubule stabilizing agents studied by electron crystallography. Top Curr Chem. 2009; 286:209-57. PMID: 23563614.
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      46. Comolli LR, Baker BJ, Downing K, Siegerist CE, Banfield JF. Three-dimensional analysis of the structure and ecology of a novel, ultra-small archaeon. ISME J. 2009 Feb; 3(2):159-67. PMID: 18946497.
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      47. Bowman GR, Comolli LR, Zhu J, Eckart M, Koenig M, Downing K, Moerner WE, Earnest T, Shapiro L. A polymeric protein anchors the chromosomal origin/ParB complex at a bacterial cell pole. Cell. 2008 Sep 19; 134(6):945-55. PMID: 18805088; PMCID: PMC2745220.
      48. Dietrich KA, Sindelar CV, Brewer PD, Downing K, Cremo CR, Rice SE. The kinesin-1 motor protein is regulated by a direct interaction of its head and tail. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 01; 105(26):8938-43. PMID: 18579780; PMCID: PMC2449343.
      49. Downing K, Glaeser RM. Restoration of weak phase-contrast images recorded with a high degree of defocus: the "twin image" problem associated with CTF correction. Ultramicroscopy. 2008 Aug; 108(9):921-8. PMID: 18508199; PMCID: PMC2694513.
      50. Downing K, Mooney PE. A charge coupled device camera with electron decelerator for intermediate voltage electron microscopy. Rev Sci Instrum. 2008 Apr; 79(4):043702. PMID: 18447528; PMCID: PMC2678785.
      51. Comolli LR, Spakowitz AJ, Siegerist CE, Jardine PJ, Grimes S, Anderson DL, Bustamante C, Downing K. Three-dimensional architecture of the bacteriophage phi29 packaged genome and elucidation of its packaging process. Virology. 2008 Feb 20; 371(2):267-77. PMID: 18001811.
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      52. Downing K, Sui H, Auer M. Electron tomography: a 3D view of the subcellular world. Anal Chem. 2007 Nov 01; 79(21):7949-57. PMID: 18044021.
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      53. Park MJ, Downing K, Jackson A, Gomez ED, Minor AM, Cookson D, Weber AZ, Balsara NP. Increased water retention in polymer electrolyte membranes at elevated temperatures assisted by capillary condensation. Nano Lett. 2007 Nov; 7(11):3547-52. PMID: 17960948.
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      54. Killilea AN, Downing K, Killilea DW. Zinc deficiency reduces paclitaxel efficacy in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2007 Dec 08; 258(1):70-9. PMID: 17905512.
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      55. Wille H, Govaerts C, Borovinskiy A, Latawiec D, Downing K, Cohen FE, Prusiner SB. Electron crystallography of the scrapie prion protein complexed with heavy metals. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Nov 15; 467(2):239-48. PMID: 17935686; PMCID: PMC3557509.
      56. Amat F, Moussavi F, Comolli LR, Elidan G, Downing K, Horowitz M. Markov random field based automatic image alignment for electron tomography. J Struct Biol. 2008 Mar; 161(3):260-75. PMID: 17855124.
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      57. Sindelar CV, Downing K. The beginning of kinesin's force-generating cycle visualized at 9-A resolution. J Cell Biol. 2007 May 07; 177(3):377-85. PMID: 17470637; PMCID: PMC2064809.
      58. Downing K, Sui H. Structural insights into microtubule doublet interactions in axonemes. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2007 Apr; 17(2):253-9. PMID: 17387011.
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      59. Cambie R, Downing K, Typke D, Glaeser RM, Jin J. Design of a microfabricated, two-electrode phase-contrast element suitable for electron microscopy. Ultramicroscopy. 2007 Apr-May; 107(4-5):329-39. PMID: 17079082.
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      60. Typke D, Gilpin CJ, Downing K, Glaeser RM. Stroboscopic image capture: reducing the dose per frame by a factor of 30 does not prevent beam-induced specimen movement in paraffin. Ultramicroscopy. 2007 Feb-Mar; 107(2-3):106-15. PMID: 16905258.
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      61. Comolli LR, Kundmann M, Downing K. Characterization of intact subcellular bodies in whole bacteria by cryo-electron tomography and spectroscopic imaging. J Microsc. 2006 Jul; 223(Pt 1):40-52. PMID: 16872430.
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      62. Sui H, Downing K. Molecular architecture of axonemal microtubule doublets revealed by cryo-electron tomography. Nature. 2006 Jul 27; 442(7101):475-8. PMID: 16738547.
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      63. Rosenberg OS, Deindl S, Comolli LR, Hoelz A, Downing K, Nairn AC, Kuriyan J. Oligomerization states of the association domain and the holoenyzme of Ca2+/CaM kinase II. FEBS J. 2006 Feb; 273(4):682-94. PMID: 16441656.
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      64. Judd EM, Comolli LR, Chen JC, Downing K, Moerner WE, McAdams HH. Distinct constrictive processes, separated in time and space, divide caulobacter inner and outer membranes. J Bacteriol. 2005 Oct; 187(20):6874-82. PMID: 16199556; PMCID: PMC1251605.
      65. Comolli LR, Downing K. Dose tolerance at helium and nitrogen temperatures for whole cell electron tomography. J Struct Biol. 2005 Dec; 152(3):149-56. PMID: 16198601.
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      66. Typke D, Nordmeyer RA, Jones A, Lee J, Avila-Sakar A, Downing K, Glaeser RM. High-throughput film-densitometry: an efficient approach to generate large data sets. J Struct Biol. 2005 Jan; 149(1):17-29. PMID: 15629654.
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      67. Glaeser RM, Downing K. Specimen charging on thin films with one conducting layer: discussion of physical principles. Microsc Microanal. 2004 Dec; 10(6):790-6. PMID: 19780321.
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      68. Downing K, McCartney MR, Glaeser RM. Experimental characterization and mitigation of specimen charging on thin films with one conducting layer. Microsc Microanal. 2004 Dec; 10(6):783-9. PMID: 19780320.
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      69. Nettles JH, Li H, Cornett B, Krahn JM, Snyder JP, Downing K. The binding mode of epothilone A on alpha,beta-tubulin by electron crystallography. Science. 2004 Aug 06; 305(5685):866-9. PMID: 15297674.
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      70. Typke D, Downing K, Glaeser RM. Electron microscopy of biological macromolecules: bridging the gap between what physics allows and what we currently can get. Microsc Microanal. 2004 Feb; 10(1):21-7. PMID: 15306063.
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      71. Paluh JL, Killilea AN, Detrich HW, Downing K. Meiosis-specific failure of cell cycle progression in fission yeast by mutation of a conserved beta-tubulin residue. Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Mar; 15(3):1160-71. PMID: 14657251; PMCID: PMC363098.
      72. Spence JC, Weierstall U, Fricke TT, Glaeser RM, Downing K. Three-dimensional diffractive imaging for crystalline monolayers with one-dimensional compact support. J Struct Biol. 2003 Oct-Nov; 144(1-2):209-18. PMID: 14643223.
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      73. Li H, DeRosier DJ, Nicholson WV, Nogales E, Downing K. Microtubule structure at 8 A resolution. Structure. 2002 Oct; 10(10):1317-28. PMID: 12377118.
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      74. Zhong S, Dadarlat VM, Glaeser RM, Head-Gordon T, Downing K. Modeling chemical bonding effects for protein electron crystallography: the transferable fragmental electrostatic potential (TFESP) method. Acta Crystallogr A. 2002 Mar; 58(Pt 2):162-70. PMID: 11832586.
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      75. Hud NV, Downing K. Cryoelectron microscopy of lambda phage DNA condensates in vitreous ice: the fine structure of DNA toroids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 18; 98(26):14925-30. PMID: 11734630; PMCID: PMC64960.
      76. Facciotti MT, Rouhani S, Burkard FT, Betancourt FM, Downing K, Rose RB, McDermott G, Glaeser RM. Structure of an early intermediate in the M-state phase of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Biophys J. 2001 Dec; 81(6):3442-55. PMID: 11721006; PMCID: PMC1301800.
      77. Löwe J, Li H, Downing K, Nogales E. Refined structure of alpha beta-tubulin at 3.5 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 2001 Nov 09; 313(5):1045-57. PMID: 11700061.
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      78. Avila-Sakar AJ, Misaghi S, Wilson-Kubalek EM, Downing K, Zgurskaya H, Nikaido H, Nogales E. Lipid-layer crystallization and preliminary three-dimensional structural analysis of AcrA, the periplasmic component of a bacterial multidrug efflux pump. J Struct Biol. 2001 Oct; 136(1):81-8. PMID: 11858709.
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      79. Downing K, Li H. Accurate Recording and Measurement of Electron Diffraction Data in Structural and Difference Fourier Studies of Proteins. Microsc Microanal. 2001 Sep; 7(5):407-417. PMID: 12597803.
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      80. Snyder JP, Nettles JH, Cornett B, Downing K, Nogales E. The binding conformation of Taxol in beta-tubulin: a model based on electron crystallographic density. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Apr 24; 98(9):5312-6. PMID: 11309480; PMCID: PMC33206.
      81. Traub-Cseko YM, Ramalho-Ortigão JM, Dantas AP, de Castro SL, Barbosa HS, Downing K. Dinitroaniline herbicides against protozoan parasites: the case of Trypanosoma cruzi. Trends Parasitol. 2001 Mar; 17(3):136-41. PMID: 11286798.
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      82. Detrich HW, Parker SK, Williams RC, Nogales E, Downing K. Cold adaptation of microtubule assembly and dynamics. Structural interpretation of primary sequence changes present in the alpha- and beta-tubulins of Antarctic fishes. J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 24; 275(47):37038-47. PMID: 10956651.
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      83. Boyd PW, Watson AJ, Law CS, Abraham ER, Trull T, Murdoch R, Bakker DC, Bowie AR, Buesseler KO, Chang H, Charette M, Croot P, Downing K, Frew R, Gall M, Hadfield M, Hall J, Harvey M, Jameson G, LaRoche J, Liddicoat M, Ling R, Maldonado MT, McKay RM, Nodder S, Pickmere S, Pridmore R, Rintoul S, Safi K, Sutton P, Strzepek R, Tanneberger K, Turner S, Waite A, Zeldis J. A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature. 2000 Oct 12; 407(6805):695-702. PMID: 11048709.
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      84. Richards KL, Anders KR, Nogales E, Schwartz K, Downing K, Botstein D. Structure-function relationships in yeast tubulins. Mol Biol Cell. 2000 May; 11(5):1887-903. PMID: 10793159; PMCID: PMC14891.
      85. Giannakakou P, Gussio R, Nogales E, Downing K, Zaharevitz D, Bollbuck B, Poy G, Sackett D, Nicolaou KC, Fojo T. A common pharmacophore for epothilone and taxanes: molecular basis for drug resistance conferred by tubulin mutations in human cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Mar 14; 97(6):2904-9. PMID: 10688884; PMCID: PMC16028.
      86. Downing K. Structural basis for the interaction of tubulin with proteins and drugs that affect microtubule dynamics. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2000; 16:89-111. PMID: 11031231.
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      87. Han Y, Sablin EP, Nogales E, Fletterick RJ, Downing K. Visualizing a new binding site of ncd-motor domain on tubulin. J Struct Biol. 1999 Dec 01; 128(1):26-33. PMID: 10600555.
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      88. Downing K, Nogales E. Crystallographic structure of tubulin: implications for dynamics and drug binding. Cell Struct Funct. 1999 Oct; 24(5):269-75. PMID: 15216882.
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      89. Chang S, Head-Gordon T, Glaeser RM, Downing K. Chemical bonding effects in the determination of protein structures by electron crystallography. Acta Crystallogr A. 1999 Mar 01; 55 ( Pt 2 Pt 2):305-13. PMID: 10927261.
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      90. Feierbach B, Nogales E, Downing K, Stearns T. Alf1p, a CLIP-170 domain-containing protein, is functionally and physically associated with alpha-tubulin. J Cell Biol. 1999 Jan 11; 144(1):113-24. PMID: 9885248; PMCID: PMC2148126.
      91. Nogales E, Whittaker M, Milligan RA, Downing K. High-resolution model of the microtubule. Cell. 1999 Jan 08; 96(1):79-88. PMID: 9989499.
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      92. Nicholson WV, Lee M, Downing K, Nogales E. Cryo-electron microscopy of GDP-tubulin rings. Cell Biochem Biophys. 1999; 31(2):175-83. PMID: 10593258.
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      93. Downing K, Hendrickson FM. Performance of a 2k CCD camera designed for electron crystallography at 400 kV. Ultramicroscopy. 1999 Jan; 75(4):215-33. PMID: 9919710.
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      94. Downing K, Nogales E. Tubulin structure: insights into microtubule properties and functions. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1998 Dec; 8(6):785-91. PMID: 9914260.
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      95. Yuan X, Werner JM, Knott V, Handford PA, Campbell ID, Downing K. Effects of proline cis-trans isomerization on TB domain secondary structure. Protein Sci. 1998 Oct; 7(10):2127-35. PMID: 9792099; PMCID: PMC2143832.
      96. Nogales E, Downing K, Amos LA, Löwe J. Tubulin and FtsZ form a distinct family of GTPases. Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Jun; 5(6):451-8. PMID: 9628483.
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      97. Downing K, Nogales E. Tubulin and microtubule structure. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1998 Feb; 10(1):16-22. PMID: 9484591.
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      98. Nogales E, Wolf SG, Downing K. Structure of the alpha beta tubulin dimer by electron crystallography. Nature. 1998 Jan 08; 391(6663):199-203. PMID: 9428769.
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      99. Fan GY, Datte P, Beuville E, Beche JF, Millaud J, Downing K, Burkard FT, Ellisman MH, Xuong NH. ASIC-based event-driven 2D digital electron counter for TEM imaging. Ultramicroscopy. 1998 Jan; 70(3):107-13. PMID: 9499588.
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      100. Downing K, Nogales E. New insights into microtubule structure and function from the atomic model of tubulin. Eur Biophys J. 1998; 27(5):431-6. PMID: 9760724.
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      101. Nogales E, Wolf SG, Downing K. Visualizing the secondary structure of tubulin: three-dimensional map at 4 A. J Struct Biol. 1997 Mar; 118(2):119-27. PMID: 9126638.
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      102. Wolf SG, Nogales E, Kikkawa M, Gratzinger D, Hirokawa N, Downing K. Interpreting a medium-resolution model of tubulin: comparison of zinc-sheet and microtubule structure. J Mol Biol. 1996 Oct 04; 262(4):485-501. PMID: 8893858.
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      103. Grigorieff N, Ceska TA, Downing K, Baldwin JM, Henderson R. Electron-crystallographic refinement of the structure of bacteriorhodopsin. J Mol Biol. 1996 Jun 14; 259(3):393-421. PMID: 8676377.
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      104. McEwen BF, Downing K, Glaeser RM. The relevance of dose-fractionation in tomography of radiation-sensitive specimens. Ultramicroscopy. 1995 Oct; 60(3):357-73. PMID: 8525549.
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      105. Perkins GA, Downing K, Glaeser RM. Crystallographic extraction and averaging of data from small image areas. Ultramicroscopy. 1995 Sep; 60(2):283-94. PMID: 7502383.
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      106. Nogales E, Wolf SG, Zhang SX, Downing K. Preservation of 2-D crystals of tubulin for electron crystallography. J Struct Biol. 1995 Sep-Oct; 115(2):199-208. PMID: 7577240.
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      107. Nogales E, Wolf SG, Khan IA, Ludueña RF, Downing K. Structure of tubulin at 6.5 A and location of the taxol-binding site. Nature. 1995 Jun 01; 375(6530):424-7. PMID: 7760939.
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      108. Hud NV, Downing K, Balhorn R. A constant radius of curvature model for the organization of DNA in toroidal condensates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Apr 11; 92(8):3581-5. PMID: 7724602; PMCID: PMC42211.
      109. Ray S, Wolf SG, Howard J, Downing K. Kinesin does not support the motility of zinc-macrotubes. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1995; 30(2):146-52. PMID: 7606807.
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      110. Barnakov AN, Downing K, Hazelbauer GL. Studies of the structural organization of a bacterial chemoreceptor by electron microscopy. J Struct Biol. 1994 Mar-Apr; 112(2):117-24. PMID: 8060729.
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      111. Glaeser RM, Downing K. High-resolution electron crystallography of protein molecules. Ultramicroscopy. 1993 Dec; 52(3-4):478-86. PMID: 8116103.
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      112. Wolf SG, Mosser G, Downing K. Tubulin conformation in zinc-induced sheets and macrotubes. J Struct Biol. 1993 Nov-Dec; 111(3):190-9. PMID: 8003380.
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      113. Hud NV, Allen MJ, Downing K, Lee J, Balhorn R. Identification of the elemental packing unit of DNA in mammalian sperm cells by atomic force microscopy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Jun 30; 193(3):1347-54. PMID: 8323555.
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      114. Glaeser RM, Downing K. Assessment of resolution in biological electron crystallography. Ultramicroscopy. 1992 Nov; 47(1-3):256-65. PMID: 1481279.
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      115. Downing K. Automatic focus correction for spot-scan imaging of tilted specimens. Ultramicroscopy. 1992 Oct; 46(1-4):199-206. PMID: 1481271.
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      116. Downing K, Jontes J. Projection map of tubulin in zinc-induced sheets at 4 A resolution. J Struct Biol. 1992 Sep-Oct; 109(2):152-9. PMID: 1288616.
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      117. Wenk HR, Downing K, Hu M, O'Keefe MA. 3D structure determination from electron-microscope images: electron crystallography of staurolite. Acta Crystallogr A. 1992 Sep 01; 48 ( Pt 5):700-16. PMID: 1445681.
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      118. Ceska TA, Henderson R, Baldwin JM, Zemlin F, Beckmann E, Downing K. An atomic model for the structure of bacteriorhodopsin, a seven-helix membrane protein. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 1992; 607:31-40. PMID: 1449073.
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      119. Downing K. Three-dimensional crystallographic reconstruction for atomic resolution. Scanning Microsc Suppl. 1992; 6:43-52. PMID: 1366340.
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      120. Sikerwar SS, Downing K, Glaeser RM. Three-dimensional structure of an invertebrate intercellular communicating junction. J Struct Biol. 1991 Jun; 106(3):255-63. PMID: 1804280.
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      121. Glaeser RM, Downing K, Jap BK. What spectroscopy can still tell us about the secondary structure of bacteriorhodopsin. Biophys J. 1991 Apr; 59(4):934-8. PMID: 2065193; PMCID: PMC1281260.
      122. Downing K. Spot-scan imaging in transmission electron microscopy. Science. 1991 Jan 04; 251(4989):53-9. PMID: 1846047.
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      123. Butt HJ, Downing K, Hansma PK. Imaging the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin with the atomic force microscope. Biophys J. 1990 Dec; 58(6):1473-80. PMID: 2275963; PMCID: PMC1281099.
      124. Henderson R, Baldwin JM, Ceska TA, Zemlin F, Beckmann E, Downing K. An atomic model for the structure of bacteriorhodopsin. Biochem Soc Trans. 1990 Oct; 18(5):844. PMID: 2083691.
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      125. Henderson R, Baldwin JM, Ceska TA, Zemlin F, Beckmann E, Downing K. Model for the structure of bacteriorhodopsin based on high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. J Mol Biol. 1990 Jun 20; 213(4):899-929. PMID: 2359127.
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      126. Jap BK, Downing K, Walian PJ. Structure of PhoE porin in projection at 3.5 A resolution. J Struct Biol. 1990 Mar; 103(1):57-63. PMID: 1697759.
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      127. Downing K, Chiu W. Cold stage design for high resolution electron microscopy of biological materials. Electron Microsc Rev. 1990; 3(2):213-26. PMID: 2103342.
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      128. Kühlbrandt W, Downing K. Two-dimensional structure of plant light-harvesting complex at 3.7 A [corrected] resolution by electron crystallography. J Mol Biol. 1989 Jun 20; 207(4):823-8. PMID: 2760931.
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      129. Downing K. Observations of restricted beam-induced specimen motion with small-spot illumination. Ultramicroscopy. 1988; 24(4):387-97. PMID: 3363743.
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      130. Dickson MR, Downing K, Wu WH, Glaeser RM. Three-dimensional structure of the surface layer protein of Aquaspirillum serpens VHA determined by electron crystallography. J Bacteriol. 1986 Sep; 167(3):1025-34. PMID: 3745114; PMCID: PMC215976.
      131. Downing K, Glaeser RM. Improvement in high resolution image quality of radiation-sensitive specimens achieved with reduced spot size of the electron beam. Ultramicroscopy. 1986; 20(3):269-78. PMID: 3824680.
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      132. Downing K. Electron crystallographic studies of DNA. Ultramicroscopy. 1984; 13(1-2):35-46. PMID: 6474599.
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      133. Chang CF, Williams RC, Grano DA, Downing K, Glaeser RM. Quantitative evaluation of high-resolution features in images of negatively stained Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Ultramicroscopy. 1983; 11(1):3-11. PMID: 6193626.
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      134. Downing K, Glaeser RM. Electron diffraction from single crystals of DNA. Biophys J. 1980 Nov; 32(2):851-6. PMID: 7260304; PMCID: PMC1327242.

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